The landscape architect James Leal Greenleaf was trained as a civil engineer, receiving a degree from Columbia University’s School of Mines in 1880; he subsequently taught at the university in the School of Engineering from 1882 to 1894. At the end of the century, he established his practice in landscape architecture and became a designer of estate gardens in Westchester County, Long Island, New Jersey, and Connecticut, including the Italian gardens of the Vanderbilt mansion in Hyde Park, New York. He oversaw the design of American military cemeteries in France after World War I and advised on the landscaping of the Lincoln Memorial in 1922; he also consulted on the landscape design for Arlington Memorial Bridge and the 1921 plan for the expansion of Arlington National Cemetery. He left his practice in 1927 to devote his time to painting and travel; his art was exhibited at the National Academy of Design in New York. Greenleaf also served as president of the American Society of Landscape Architects.